I sent a PowerPoint presentation attachment to some friends (which I couldn't manage to attach here) the day before. It was about the terrorist events, similarities between different groups and double faced politics of imperialist powers but mainly on PKK in Turkiye.
An Iraqi friend wrote; "The final equation is very correct.. what is really amazing is the foolish double standards of the Invaders......
What I meant by the Invaders was the American forces.....I mean they supported the Kurds in North Iraq against the legitimate government of Iraq through out the insurgency interval that started in the 50ths of the last century....Now...they consider portion of the Kurds as terrorists and worth demolishing... American war planes bombed Kurd's villages in North Iraq as the Kurds there were accused to have relation with al Qaida...and the civilians lives lost were very numerous... Once more, the Americans brought to power in Iraq now a bunch of criminals and outlaw gangs that had nothing to offer to Iraq but death squads and assassination of brainy people......
I know well that the world knows but little about what is going on in Iraq... death and violations of human rights carried out by gangs supported and backed by collation forces of the free world.....!!!!! To heal American democracy and American death troops !"
Once more, I thought how complex the WHOLE Kurdish problem is. They have many institutes etc and I am sure they are making deep, intellectual researches. We might not able to make such intellectual analyses but at least we are capable of questioning and perceiving what is going on around.
Maybe the worst thing for Kurds is, being divided mainly between four countries, Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria. It can be a good example for imperialism's major policy of divide and conquer from a point of view.
Today's political geography of the Middle East is the product of deals made between Allies after the 1st WW. Maps of the countries in the region decided, draw by the British and the French according to their colonial interests. The people of the region other than Turkiye had nothing to do for their future. It began a dramatic period for the Kurds in area. While they were living different processes according to the countries they became citizens, they counted as major problem for every country.
Not only the English and French but also Soviets and United States used them according to the politics of Cold War era. Super powers simultaneously supported or opposed the Kurdish national struggle depending on the nature of the state of the country in which they were living.
It is like a misfortune combined with their history. In the 10th century, Kurdistan was shared amongst five big Kurdish principalities. But it was the time of massive invasions of tribes migrating from the steppes of Central Asia. After conquering Iran, Seljuk Turks invaded the 5 Kurdish principalities one by one. Only around 1150, the last great Seljuk monarch, created a province on these lands and called Kurdistan.
At 12th century, great Saladdin- i Eyyubi founded dynasty of Syria, and Kurdish chieftainships were established as far as Horasan. All Kurdish lands devastated by Mongols at 13th century. In 14th century, Timur conquered most of Kurdistan and destroyed Kurdish tribes. Although the Karakoyunlu rulers helped Kurdish tribes to recover, they were defeated by Akkoyunlu dynasty at 15th century and Kurdish tribes destroyed once more. etc...etc..etc..
Sultan Abdul Hamid ordered the establishment of an irregular mounted force in eastern Anatolia at 1891 and named them after himself, the Hamidiya Cavalry. He was trying to copy the Russian Cossack regiments which were so effective in the Caucasus. Hamidiya was raised from selected Sunni Kurdish tribes of proven loyalty. Some of the regiment were totally from one tribe, and its commanded by the tribal chief.
At 1895 Britain, France and Russia wanted reforms for the Armenian provinces: an amnesty for Armenian prisoners; 'approved' governors; return for victims of the outrages. Kurdish nomadic movements would be allowed only under surveillance and to encouraged to settle; and the Hamidiya to be disarmed. Abdul Hamid agreed but neglected these demands. After a short silence, at September 1895 a violent incident took place between Armenian demonstrators and police in Istanbul. It was the beginning of widespread attacks to Armenians all around Anatolia by Muslim Turks and Kurds, Ottoman soldiers, including the Hamidiya.
When Abdul Hamid overthrown by Ittihat ve Terakki (Committee of Union and Progress) in 1908, Hamidiya regiments renamed as 'Tribal Regiments' (ashirat alaylan). But the regime was becoming weak, Empire was in disorder; including Kurdistan itself, Bulgars of Macedonia, the Catholic tribes of northern Albania, in Yemen where a new Mahdi proclaimed himself, and Durzis the Syria. Tribal regiments sent to some of these trouble spots with regular troops. They gave heavy loses at Yemen and Albania, acquiring a reputation for savagery while restoring order.... etc...etc...
And the Ottoman Empire fall, lands invaded by English, French, Italian, Greek etc. Kurds took part in The National Independence War beginning in Anatolia. New borders drawn by Allies created new countries as Syria and Iraq on the lands of old empire.
Turks, Kurds of Anatolia, Turkish Alevis and many other groups supporting the independence war took part in the foundation of the new secular Republic. As Kurdish uprisings fallowed the declaration of the Republic, Turkish government became firmer. While the Republic of Turkiye was rising at Anatolia; tribes of Kurds stayed at the Iraq side of the border, British controlled Southern Kurdistan were raising a military force from their Iranian tribal followers.
The success of the Kurdish fighters’ anti-British revolts forced the British to recognize Kurdish autonomy in 1923. When the uprisings were settled a little, the British government signed Iraq over to King Faysal and a new Arab-led government. Settling at mountains, Sheik Mahmud signed a peace agreement with the new government and stayed in the new Iraq.
One important upraising after Sheik Said in Turkiye was "Mouth Ararat Revolt". Turkish forces attempted to suppress the revolt as early as 1927, but there was no cooperation from Persia. Mount Ararat was in the Turkish-Persian border. By 1930, went on the offensive, surrounding Mount Ararat with over 10,000 troops and as Kurdish tribes were recruited to join the cause, 60,000 more soldiers were called up by the Turkish government.
The biggest blow to Ararat revolt, came from Persia. Persian government did not resist Turkish military advances into Persia to surround Mount Ararat. Their guardsmen began to close the Persian-Turkish border to non-essential travelers, including Kurdish tribes attempting to reinforce the revolt. Persia eventually completely submit to Turkish operational demands, trading the land surrounding Mount Ararat for Turkish land near Qutur and Barzirgan.
In 1941 Britain and the USSR partitioned Iran into two zones of control in order to prevent the country from entering the war on the side of Germany. In the Soviet zone, the Kurds of northwest Iran enjoyed de facto independence. At wars end, Teheran pressured the Soviets to leave, which they did in December 1945. As they left, the Kurds formally proclaimed themselves independent in January 1946, with their capital at Mahabad. The government included many Kurds from Iraq, including Mustafa Barzani, the army commander. Their forces were Soviet-equipped and uniformed, but they owed no ideological allegiance to the USSR.
I am not trying to repeat the historical events many already know. Just remembering how history is repeating itself. If you take of the dates, they may all seem about close events. Support..withdrove...give hope...leave alone... Only thing which don't change must be "disappointment" and "suffering". They were invaded and sold again and again.
Even in one single country; economic, politic, social, cultural, traditional etc implementations and tendencies may strongly differ. Can the Kurdish people living mainly in four (but more) countries meet at a common ground?
As many many historical turning points show, Kurdish people didn't betrayed only by other nations again and again but also experienced several self betrayals. Pesmerges fighting beside Turkish Army against PKK in the past or differences between Barzani and Talabani are simple examples.
Do they (Iraqi Kurds) think US as an invader or fine with their new found status? Would they help PKK (not Turkish Kurds) and put their status in any kind of danger?
As those questions are their problem, becoming another invader or not is our problem. Of course we should and would fight with terrorism, but we should also take lessons from history and be careful in our steps not to became any kind of invader. We should provide the equal human rights and democracy with the same determination of fighting with terror. More over, human rights and democracy should be the priority at this multi problematic point (without any final equation)...